Difference between revisions of "Category:Accessibility"

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[[Category: Design]]
 
[[Category: Design]]
 
==The Basics==
 
==The Basics==
Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). – [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility Wikipedia]
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Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments '''for people who experience disabilities'''. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). – [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility Wikipedia]
  
Accessibility law applies specifically to those with disabilities, whether those disabilities are physical or cognitive. [[:Category: Types of Disabilities | These include:]]
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[[:Category: Types of Disabilities | Types of Disabilities]]
 
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* [[Hearing issues | Hearing difficulty and d/Deafness]]
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* [[:Category: Vision Issues | Low vision and blindness]]
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** [[Colorblindness]]
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* [[:Category: Neurological and Cognitive Issues]]
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** [[Dyslexia]]
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** [[Autism]]
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** [[Dementia]]
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* [[Motor Issues]]
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Many people who are aging experience some or all of the above disabilities, so you might also want to check out [[Aging]].
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== Why Accessibility ==
 
== Why Accessibility ==
 
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[https://twitter.com/jameswillweb/status/789212365325828096 [[File:Jameswilliamsaccessibilityquote.jpg|400px]]]<br /> <br/>
[https://twitter.com/jameswillweb/status/789212365325828096 [[File:Jameswilliamsaccessibilityquote.jpg|400px]]]
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Accessibility is the act of designing for an audience that includes people who have disabilities, and may (or may not) be using additional software or hardware to complete their goals. Accessibility is a way of thinking about design and development. Dylan Barrell explains it in his article &quot;[http://unobfuscated.blogspot.com/2015/02/what-is-accessibility.html What is accessibility?]&quot; in terms of a series of traits.
 
Accessibility is the act of designing for an audience that includes people who have disabilities, and may (or may not) be using additional software or hardware to complete their goals. Accessibility is a way of thinking about design and development. Dylan Barrell explains it in his article &quot;[http://unobfuscated.blogspot.com/2015/02/what-is-accessibility.html What is accessibility?]&quot; in terms of a series of traits.
 
 
* '''Accessibility is empathy''' for your users.
 
* '''Accessibility is empathy''' for your users.
 
* '''Accessibility is usability''' in the things you build.
 
* '''Accessibility is usability''' in the things you build.
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I've written a few things about Accessibility over the years, which can be boiled down to these two points:
 
I've written a few things about Accessibility over the years, which can be boiled down to these two points:
  
== Thing the first: You need to work with the knowledge of your own stereotypes ==
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* [[You must be aware of your own stereotypes]]
 +
* [[You will not always be able-bodied]]
  
Many (many many) people in tech I talk to who are unfamiliar with Accessibility invoke internal stereotypes about disabled people. This is called ableism, and like sexism or racism, it means that -- consciously or unconsciously -- a person thinks of another person as &quot;lesser&quot; or &quot;other&quot;.  
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==Legal issues==
 +
One of the most, um, ''motivating'' aspects of accessibility law is the ability for someone with a disability to sue or register a complaint against the Office of Civil Rights (in the US, and similar offices in other countries) when a physical or virtual location is inaccessible.  
  
In my article, &quot;[https://alistapart.com/article/reframing-accessibility-for-the-web Reframing Accessibility for the Web]&quot; I try to make the reader aware that ableism exists, and that it interferes with our support of accessible design by denigrating the value of the people accessible design serves.  In that article I suggest that if you can't justify writing accessible software as an audience need, then you should reframe it as a technology need -- you need your software to run on these pieces of hardware (keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, screen reader, etc.) regardless of what you think of your users.
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===United States===
  
Would I prefer that everyone tear up their internal stereotypes and build accessible software because everyone needs it? Hells to the yes I would. But I've walked into too many executive meetings where the first thing I was told about Accessibility is &quot;it has to have a business value, it can't just be the right thing to do&quot;, so - yay capitalism? Besides, half the time we don't even know what our internal stereotypes are until someone points them out to us. The best way to uncover them is to expose ourselves to different ways of thinking, which happens really fast when we try to use input devices we've never used before. We'll never be substitutes for our disabled users, but we might at least see some of the stupider design mistakes we've made if we at least ''try'' to test our software on multiple devices before shipping.
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[https://www.section508.gov/node/303 As of January 9, 2017], the [https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications-and-it/about-the-ict-refresh/final-rule/iii-major-issues-5 Standards and Guidelines of the ICT] state that federal governmental electronic content shall conform to [https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/#contents Level A and Level AA Success Criteria of the WCAG 2.0] via changes to the [https://www.section508.gov/ Section 508] laws and guidelines. That means that if a company want federal contracts or to provide services to the federal government, it has to meet those accessibility standards. Many state and local governments, state colleges, libraries, etc. also use the Section 508 guidelines — so these potential clients would also request or require accessibility at the Section 508 levels.
  
== Thing the second: Recognize that you will not be able bodied your whole life ==
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While officially these rules do not directly apply to non-federal-governmental websites or applications, there have been [http://www.adatitleiii.com/2016/03/tracking-the-trends-website-accessibility-lawsuits-by-the-numbers/ many web accessibility lawsuits] with the Wall Street Journal reporting [http://www.wsj.com/articles/companies-face-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility-for-blind-users-1478005201 over 240 businesses being sued in federal court] over sites inaccessible to the blind since 2015.
  
Tech still tends to be a relatively young person's career, although I haven't figure out yet whether that's because it kills us faster or we get tired of it or we get rich and retire to the Caribbean. (I'm really hoping it's the third one.)
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Microassist.com’s [https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/digital-accessibility-primer-legal/ What Lawyers Should Know About Digital Accessibility, the ADA, and More] covers a significant amount of US-based information about accessibility, including a timeline of landmark digital accessibility legal cases.
  
Having been a young person once and a middle-aged person now, I can confidently say that we humans do not know what it's like to lose a fingertip until we're looking at it on the kitchen counter. We can empathize, cringe, even get nauseous at the thought, but only those of us who have lost the tip of a finger (or toe, I'll spot you a toe) can nod and go &quot;Yup, and here's what that experience is like.&quot;
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====Interesting or impactful legal rulings====
 +
[https://www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/target-case-study A Cautionary Tale of Inaccessibility: Target Corporation] by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). This 2006 decision had a major impact on the Accessibility community because it successfully ruled that telling people with disabilities that they have to use a lower-feature mobile website instead of the full-featured desktop website was a violation of California law. “The [Federal] Judge found that California anti-discrimination law covers websites whether or not they are, or are connected to, a physical place, and that those aspects of Target.com’s services that are sufficiently integrated with those of physical Target Stores are covered by the ADA’s non-discrimination provisions.
  
On the other hand, all of us, experienced or no, can imagine and empathize with someone who's lost the tip of a finger. Giant bandage, itchy healing, difficulty typing, doors are a bit of a pain.... That's important, especially in light of Thing The First and our internalized stereotypes. When we take a group of people and say &quot;I'm not one of them&quot; or &quot;I don't know what it's like to be one of them&quot; it's easy to say &quot;They're not important; I'm building for people like me.&quot;
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[http://doc.lab.boomi.com/download/attachments/25627585/Legal+Landscape+Update+2016+Year+in+Review+Web_508.pdf?version=1&modificationDate=1515007552000SSB Bart Group reviews the legal rulings in 2016 in  this whitepaper]. Summary points include:
  
But who are the people like you? When we say &quot;They have an accessibility issue, in that they can only use a keyboard,&quot; do you picture someone who has a severe and permanent disability that prevents them from using a mouse, or do you picture a fingertip wrapped in gauze two inches thick?
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* 6601 ADA Title III Lawsuits were filed in federal court in 2016, a 37% increase over 2015. Many were settled out-of-court so details are unavailable.
 +
* Both the US and the EU updated their compliance regulations in 2016/2017.
 +
* Video captions were a major issue in the education, and entertainment sectors.
 +
* Screen readers were a major issue in the education, and government sectors.
 +
* Low-vision issues and forms were a major issue in healthcare, and government sectors.
 +
* Major lawsuits included the Winn-Dixie case already referenced, BMI/BND Travelware (a luggage retailer) who was sued under both ADA law and a California civil rights law, Deckers Outdoor Corp (the company that makes Uggs) which is still pending, Sweetgreen (salad restaurant), Bank of America, and E*Trade.
  
The point of [https://the-pastry-box-project.net/anne-gibson/2014-july-31 An Alphabet of Accessibility Issues] is that anyone at any time for any number of reasons might find themselves in need of your accessible product. They might be permanently disabled, they might be temporarily disabled, they might just be distracted or have their hands full. They might be older, they might be younger, they might be exactly like you. Because we cannot predict who our users really are -- and for that matter we cannot predict our own health from one day to the next -- we have to build for everyone.
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[http://www.chainstoreage.com/article/winn-dixie-case-puts-spotlight-website-accessibilitycompliance Winn-Dixie Case Puts Spotlight on Website Accessibility/Compliance] by Chain Store Age. This 2017 decision addresses the same kinds of complaints the Target case addressed — the website must be accessible because it is a gateway to the stores. Emphasis added.
  
 +
<blockquote> This Florida case also include an entire section on vendors: It is a common practice for businesses to host links on their websites that connect them to partners, vendors, or other third parties. The Court’s ruling this week suggests that even if a business hosts a compliant website, it may be held liable for noncompliance under Title III of the ADA, if it links up to websites that are inaccessible.<br /><br />
  
== Standards and Guidelines ==
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The Court in Winn Dixie ruled that “There are 6 different third parties . . . who interface with Winn Dixie’s website so Winn-Dixie needs to make sure that those third parties also make sure that their websites are accessible” and “The Court also finds that the fact that third party vendors operate certain parts of the Winn-Dixie website is not a legal impediment to Winn-Dixie’s obligation to make its website accessible to the disabled. First, many, if not most, of the third party vendors may already be accessible to the disabled and, if not, Winn-Dixie has a legal obligation to require them to be accessible if they choose to operate within the Winn-Dixie website.” '''This language suggests that an operator or owner of an accessible website may face liability for the noncompliance of vendors that it features through its links.'''</blockquote>
  
The official standard is the [https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ WCAG 2.0 standard] by the W3C.  
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In January 2018, The New York Post announced [https://nypost.com/2018/01/07/blind-woman-sues-30-websites-over-handicap-accessibility/ a blind woman from Manhattan filed lawsuits against more than 30 websites] (mostly retail by the looks of it) for being incompatible with screen readers, and that a disabled man in Manhattan has filed 21 lawsuits for similar offenses.
  
For resources related to the standard, see [[:Category: WCAG Guidelines]].
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===Other countries===
 +
The Law Office of Larry Feingold posts an article entitled [http://www.lflegal.com/2013/05/gaad-legal/ Digital Accessibility Laws Around the Globe] dated from May 2013, but last updated May 2018 (as of this writing) that keeps track of what laws and rulings may affect each of roughly 16 countries. Other cases include:
  
 +
* [http://www.bbc.com/news/business-43968736 Blind customers locked out by bank web upgrades] in the UK
 +
 +
== Standards and Guidelines ==
 +
The official standard is the [https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ WCAG 2.0 standard] by the W3C. For resources related to the standard, see [[:Category: WCAG Guidelines]].
 
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/futuremedia/accessibility/mobile BBC Mobile Accessibility Standards &amp; Guidelines]
 
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/futuremedia/accessibility/mobile BBC Mobile Accessibility Standards &amp; Guidelines]
 
* [http://www-03.ibm.com/able/guidelines/ci162/accessibility_checklist.html IBM Web Accessibility Checklist Version 7]
 
* [http://www-03.ibm.com/able/guidelines/ci162/accessibility_checklist.html IBM Web Accessibility Checklist Version 7]
 
 
== Getting it done ==
 
== Getting it done ==
 
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[[Accessibility 101]]: The things you need to get started
=== Accessibility 101 - The things you need to know to get started ===
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* [https://www.marcozehe.de/2015/12/14/the-web-accessibility-basics/?utm_content=buffer40247&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer The Web Accessibility Basics] by Marco's Accessibility Blog
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* [https://the-pastry-box-project.net/monika-piotrowicz/2014-April-29# Getting Started with Web Accessibility] by Monika Piotrowicz at The Pastry Box.
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* Dos and don'ts on designing for accessibility by Karwai Pun on Gov.UK. Includes posters for designing for [[Autism | people on the autism spectrum]], [[Low Vision and Blindness | people using screen readers]], people with low vision, people with physical or motor disabilities, [Deafness | people who are deaf or hard of hearing]], and [[Dyslexia | people with dyslexia]].
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* [https://www.invisionapp.com/blog/designing-for-inclusivity/ Designing for Inclusivity: How and Why to Get Started] by Allison Shaw at the Invision Design Blog
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[https://benrobertson.io/accessibility/common-accessibility-mistakes-and-how-to-avoid-them Common Accessibility Mistakes and How To Avoid Them] by Ben Robertson outlines four of his own principles for developing accessible websites.
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# Web Design is more than graphic design
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# Be ASAP: As Semantic As Possible
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# Websites should look good naked
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# Talk to your computer (Use ARIA attributes)
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It also outlines common accessibility mistakes:
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* Missing page titles
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* Poor heading structure
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* Link text should tell where or what a user is clicking on
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* Inputs missing a <label>
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* CSS Grid / Flexbox: visual reordering sets a mismatch between logical ordering and visual ordering
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* Missing or poor alt attributes for images
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* Removing focus outlines
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* Missing keyboard functionality
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* Hiding things the wrong way
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=== Fostering the Culture ===
 
=== Fostering the Culture ===
 
 
* [https://aneventapart.com/news/post/extreme-design-by-derek-featherstonean-event-apart-video Extreme Design] by Derek Featherstone is a one-hour video of how accessible design benefits everyone.
 
* [https://aneventapart.com/news/post/extreme-design-by-derek-featherstonean-event-apart-video Extreme Design] by Derek Featherstone is a one-hour video of how accessible design benefits everyone.
 
* [https://blogs.dropbox.com/tech/2017/04/creating-a-culture-of-accessibility/ Creating a Culture of Accessibility] by Cordelia McGee Tubs at the Dropbox Tech Blog. This article discusses generating excitement around accessibility, running an accessibility device lab, rewarding the organization's champions, spreading knowledge, and developing a culture of learning around accessibility.
 
* [https://blogs.dropbox.com/tech/2017/04/creating-a-culture-of-accessibility/ Creating a Culture of Accessibility] by Cordelia McGee Tubs at the Dropbox Tech Blog. This article discusses generating excitement around accessibility, running an accessibility device lab, rewarding the organization's champions, spreading knowledge, and developing a culture of learning around accessibility.
 
* [https://alistapart.com/article/reframing-accessibility-for-the-web Reframing Accessibility for the Web] by me at A List Apart. This article discusses how stereotypes work, how they're interfering with our accessible design process, and one approach to testing for accessibility that takes the stereotypes out of the direct line of fire.
 
* [https://alistapart.com/article/reframing-accessibility-for-the-web Reframing Accessibility for the Web] by me at A List Apart. This article discusses how stereotypes work, how they're interfering with our accessible design process, and one approach to testing for accessibility that takes the stereotypes out of the direct line of fire.
 
* [https://accessibility.digital.gov Accessibility for Teams] by the US Government outlines how each role at an organization or in a team can improve the accessibility of a product.  
 
* [https://accessibility.digital.gov Accessibility for Teams] by the US Government outlines how each role at an organization or in a team can improve the accessibility of a product.  
 
 
===Agile and Accessibility ===
 
===Agile and Accessibility ===
 
* [http://www.interactiveaccessibility.com/blog/how-write-user-stories-accessibility-requirements#.WWBfR8aZPUp How to write user stories user stories for web accessibility] by Kathy Wahlbin at Interactive Accessibility
 
* [http://www.interactiveaccessibility.com/blog/how-write-user-stories-accessibility-requirements#.WWBfR8aZPUp How to write user stories user stories for web accessibility] by Kathy Wahlbin at Interactive Accessibility
 
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===Specific topics===
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* [[Accessible Error Handling]]
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* [[Writing Accessibly]]
 
== Testing tools ==
 
== Testing tools ==
 
===Why test with people who have disabilities?===
 
===Why test with people who have disabilities?===
 
* [https://uxdesign.cc/disabled-user-testing-a-cautionary-tale-b6cf64425adb Accessibility user testing: a cautionary tale] by Daniel Pidcock outlines one example of what can happen when we assume that our work is accessible.   
 
* [https://uxdesign.cc/disabled-user-testing-a-cautionary-tale-b6cf64425adb Accessibility user testing: a cautionary tale] by Daniel Pidcock outlines one example of what can happen when we assume that our work is accessible.   
 
===How to test===
 
===How to test===
[[Accessibility Testing Tools]] outlines information about testing.
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* [https://www.deque.com/blog/considering-accessibility-when-designing-a-usability-test Considering accessibility when designing a usability test] outlines ways to integrate accessibility testing into usability testing -- since if it's not accessible, it's not usable.
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* [[Accessibility Testing Tools]] outlines information about testing code, such as how to use a screen reader and what automated tools are available.
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* [http://www.uiaccess.com/accessucd/ut_ppt-screen.html Accessibility In User-Centered Design: Recruiting Screener] gives a detailed screener example
  
 
== Accessibility &amp; Mobile Design ==
 
== Accessibility &amp; Mobile Design ==
 
 
* [https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/05/mobile-accessibility-why-care-what-can-you-do/ Mobile And Accessibility: Why You Should Care And What You Can Do About It] by TJ VanToll at Smashing Magazine
 
* [https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/05/mobile-accessibility-why-care-what-can-you-do/ Mobile And Accessibility: Why You Should Care And What You Can Do About It] by TJ VanToll at Smashing Magazine
 
 
== Accessibility &amp; Game Design ==
 
== Accessibility &amp; Game Design ==
 
 
* [https://www.davrous.com/2015/08/27/creating-an-accessible-breakout-game-using-web-audio-svg/ Creating an accessible breakout game using Web Audio &amp; SVG] by David Roussett
 
* [https://www.davrous.com/2015/08/27/creating-an-accessible-breakout-game-using-web-audio-svg/ Creating an accessible breakout game using Web Audio &amp; SVG] by David Roussett
 
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==anne’s Accessibility talks==
== More resources ==
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* [[An Alphabet of Accessibility]]
 
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* [http://webaim.org/resources/ WebAIM Resources page]
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== Related topics ==
 
== Related topics ==
 
 
* [[Disability as Inspiration Porn]]
 
* [[Disability as Inspiration Porn]]
 +
* [https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2018/9/20/17791354/products-people-disabilities-sock-slider-banana-slicer-lazy Products mocked as “lazy” or “useless” are often important tools for people with disabilities] by s.e. smith for Vox
 
* [https://youtu.be/MC8ZGs_wG7w Cool stuff for blind, deaf, or non-verbal people (youtube)]
 
* [https://youtu.be/MC8ZGs_wG7w Cool stuff for blind, deaf, or non-verbal people (youtube)]
 
* [http://www.bookwormblues.net/2014/09/10/i-am-not-broken-the-language-of-disability/ I am not broken: the language of disability]by Bookworm Blues
 
* [http://www.bookwormblues.net/2014/09/10/i-am-not-broken-the-language-of-disability/ I am not broken: the language of disability]by Bookworm Blues
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* [http://disabilityinkidlit.com/2016/03/19/overcompensating-magical-erasure-of-blindness-in-sff/ Overcompensating: Magical Erasure of Blindness in SFF]
  
 
== Accessible PDF files ==
 
== Accessible PDF files ==
 
 
Web Accessibility 101: Screen Magnification &amp;amp; Reflow in Acrobat Reader https://youtu.be/fCrZhnFrxjk
 
Web Accessibility 101: Screen Magnification &amp;amp; Reflow in Acrobat Reader https://youtu.be/fCrZhnFrxjk
 
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
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* [http://webaim.org/techniques/acrobat/converting PDF Accessibility] by WebAIM
[http://webaim.org/techniques/acrobat/converting PDF Accessibility] by WebAIM
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* [[WAI-ARIA]] <-- this totally doesn't belong here but I'm not sure where to put it yet
 +
* [http://webaim.org/resources/ WebAIM Resources page]
 +
* (parody) [https://useragentman.com/wcag-wishlist/ WCAG proposed update]

Latest revision as of 13:09, 16 August 2019

The Basics

Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). – Wikipedia

Types of Disabilities

Why Accessibility

Jameswilliamsaccessibilityquote.jpg

Accessibility is the act of designing for an audience that includes people who have disabilities, and may (or may not) be using additional software or hardware to complete their goals. Accessibility is a way of thinking about design and development. Dylan Barrell explains it in his article "What is accessibility?" in terms of a series of traits.

  • Accessibility is empathy for your users.
  • Accessibility is usability in the things you build.
  • Accessibility is compliance with best practices, so you don't have to reinvent the wheel (or make your user do the same).
  • Accessibility is making the experience better for all users, with an emphasis on the users at the edge of the experience.
  • And Accessibility is practical - not idealistic - in its pursuit of a better experience.

(There's a great discussion of how a map can be accessible not by aligning with the letter of accessibility requirements, but by reassessing what the core user need actually is and building it instead or in addition to the map, in the "What is accessibility?" article, by the way.)

Paul Boag raises many of the same points in his article Accessibility is not what you think, putting the emphasis on the fact that accessible solutions aren't strictly for the profoundly disabled edge cases. Yes, they are covered by good accessibility solutions, but good accessibility solutions benefit everyone. Accessibility is not a few things, though you'll meet people who think that it is. It is not a checklist of things to do so that your software passes a compliance test, a list of things to do so you don't get sued, or a pain in your ass. (Or rather, if it's a pain in your ass, so is User Experience and everything else that's going to make your product successful, so deal.)

Accessibility is not a "nice thing to do", as Karin Hitselberger explains in her article of the same name. It's the law. And it's the law because Karin and you and I all share the same rights to life and dignity and safety and security. It's not kindness, and it's not charity. It's the baseline.

Accessibility is not a 'Feature' and Developers Should Never Treat It as Such. Similarly, Access is not Optional.

I've written a few things about Accessibility over the years, which can be boiled down to these two points:

Legal issues

One of the most, um, motivating aspects of accessibility law is the ability for someone with a disability to sue or register a complaint against the Office of Civil Rights (in the US, and similar offices in other countries) when a physical or virtual location is inaccessible.

United States

As of January 9, 2017, the Standards and Guidelines of the ICT state that federal governmental electronic content shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria of the WCAG 2.0 via changes to the Section 508 laws and guidelines. That means that if a company want federal contracts or to provide services to the federal government, it has to meet those accessibility standards. Many state and local governments, state colleges, libraries, etc. also use the Section 508 guidelines — so these potential clients would also request or require accessibility at the Section 508 levels.

While officially these rules do not directly apply to non-federal-governmental websites or applications, there have been many web accessibility lawsuits with the Wall Street Journal reporting over 240 businesses being sued in federal court over sites inaccessible to the blind since 2015.

Microassist.com’s What Lawyers Should Know About Digital Accessibility, the ADA, and More covers a significant amount of US-based information about accessibility, including a timeline of landmark digital accessibility legal cases.

Interesting or impactful legal rulings

A Cautionary Tale of Inaccessibility: Target Corporation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). This 2006 decision had a major impact on the Accessibility community because it successfully ruled that telling people with disabilities that they have to use a lower-feature mobile website instead of the full-featured desktop website was a violation of California law. “The [Federal] Judge found that California anti-discrimination law covers websites whether or not they are, or are connected to, a physical place, and that those aspects of Target.com’s services that are sufficiently integrated with those of physical Target Stores are covered by the ADA’s non-discrimination provisions.”

Bart Group reviews the legal rulings in 2016 in this whitepaper. Summary points include:

  • 6601 ADA Title III Lawsuits were filed in federal court in 2016, a 37% increase over 2015. Many were settled out-of-court so details are unavailable.
  • Both the US and the EU updated their compliance regulations in 2016/2017.
  • Video captions were a major issue in the education, and entertainment sectors.
  • Screen readers were a major issue in the education, and government sectors.
  • Low-vision issues and forms were a major issue in healthcare, and government sectors.
  • Major lawsuits included the Winn-Dixie case already referenced, BMI/BND Travelware (a luggage retailer) who was sued under both ADA law and a California civil rights law, Deckers Outdoor Corp (the company that makes Uggs) which is still pending, Sweetgreen (salad restaurant), Bank of America, and E*Trade.

Winn-Dixie Case Puts Spotlight on Website Accessibility/Compliance by Chain Store Age. This 2017 decision addresses the same kinds of complaints the Target case addressed — the website must be accessible because it is a gateway to the stores. Emphasis added.

This Florida case also include an entire section on vendors: It is a common practice for businesses to host links on their websites that connect them to partners, vendors, or other third parties. The Court’s ruling this week suggests that even if a business hosts a compliant website, it may be held liable for noncompliance under Title III of the ADA, if it links up to websites that are inaccessible.

The Court in Winn Dixie ruled that “There are 6 different third parties . . . who interface with Winn Dixie’s website so Winn-Dixie needs to make sure that those third parties also make sure that their websites are accessible” and “The Court also finds that the fact that third party vendors operate certain parts of the Winn-Dixie website is not a legal impediment to Winn-Dixie’s obligation to make its website accessible to the disabled. First, many, if not most, of the third party vendors may already be accessible to the disabled and, if not, Winn-Dixie has a legal obligation to require them to be accessible if they choose to operate within the Winn-Dixie website.” This language suggests that an operator or owner of an accessible website may face liability for the noncompliance of vendors that it features through its links.

In January 2018, The New York Post announced a blind woman from Manhattan filed lawsuits against more than 30 websites (mostly retail by the looks of it) for being incompatible with screen readers, and that a disabled man in Manhattan has filed 21 lawsuits for similar offenses.

Other countries

The Law Office of Larry Feingold posts an article entitled Digital Accessibility Laws Around the Globe dated from May 2013, but last updated May 2018 (as of this writing) that keeps track of what laws and rulings may affect each of roughly 16 countries. Other cases include:

Standards and Guidelines

The official standard is the WCAG 2.0 standard by the W3C. For resources related to the standard, see Category: WCAG Guidelines.

Getting it done

Accessibility 101: The things you need to get started

Fostering the Culture

  • Extreme Design by Derek Featherstone is a one-hour video of how accessible design benefits everyone.
  • Creating a Culture of Accessibility by Cordelia McGee Tubs at the Dropbox Tech Blog. This article discusses generating excitement around accessibility, running an accessibility device lab, rewarding the organization's champions, spreading knowledge, and developing a culture of learning around accessibility.
  • Reframing Accessibility for the Web by me at A List Apart. This article discusses how stereotypes work, how they're interfering with our accessible design process, and one approach to testing for accessibility that takes the stereotypes out of the direct line of fire.
  • Accessibility for Teams by the US Government outlines how each role at an organization or in a team can improve the accessibility of a product.

Agile and Accessibility

Specific topics

Testing tools

Why test with people who have disabilities?

How to test

Accessibility & Mobile Design

Accessibility & Game Design

anne’s Accessibility talks

Related topics

Accessible PDF files

Web Accessibility 101: Screen Magnification &amp; Reflow in Acrobat Reader https://youtu.be/fCrZhnFrxjk

Additional Resources

Subcategories

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

Media in category "Accessibility"

This category contains only the following file.